Appendicitis is one of the most frequent pathologies of abdominal surgical field, which occurs due to inflammation of the appendix.With the development of the disease is necessary to conduct emergency surgery.Consider the symptoms of appendicitis in children, types, diagnosis.
Types of appendicitis in children
identifies two main types of appendicitis in children, depending on the disease - acute and chronic.The clinical and anatomical classification of appendicitis in children include:
- catarrhal appendicitis , which is the simplest and most common form of the disease.In this case there is only hyperemia and edema of the mucous membranes of the appendix, abdominal serous exudate accumulates;
- abscess appendicitis , which accompanies inflammation of all layers of process, in its cavity contains pus, and the surface is covered with patches of fibrin;
- gangrenous appendicitis , during which accompanied by necrosis of the walls of the appendix;
- empyema appendix , accompanied by an accumulation of
- form of perforated appendicitis , which was accompanied by a gap wall of the appendix and the outpouring of its contents into the abdominal cavity.
symptoms of appendicitis in children
of acute appendicitis in children is possible at any age, but in most cases it is recorded in the period from 5 to 14 years , while the incidence of boys in 2 times less in comparison with thegirls.For symptoms of appendicitis in children is characterized by the possession of some features due to the structure of the appendix and its weak development of lymphoid tissue.
Location appendix in children often retrotsekalnoe (behind the cecum), and obstructive, and this is caused by a particular pattern of the disease. The main symptoms of appendicitis in children include:
- occurrence of abdominal pain that have different localization (depending on where the appendix);
- signs of anxiety (refusal of food, sleep disturbance, crying);
- violation of the chair (the occurrence of diarrhea, constipation);
- increase in body temperature up to high levels;
- development tachycardia (increased heart rate);
- appearance of vomiting;
- violation of urination.
Appendicitis in children starts suddenly and has a rapidly increasing symptoms.Sharp pains are aching in nature.They often begin in the epigastric region, and later descend into the right iliac fossa.When atypical location of the appendix, for example, retrotsekalno pain appear in the lower back and give the groin;in the case of pelvic localization of the appendix notes the development of pain in the lower abdomen above the pubis and, in the case of obstructive localization process pain occurs in the liver.
Sometimes pain in children may have a rare localization - to give back, genitals and perineum, stomach, ureter than difficult to diagnose the disease.Often, children, patients with appendicitis, taken forced recumbency on the left side, while the legs are compressed to the stomach.
diagnosis of appendicitis in children
If your child has any abdominal pain, you can not start the treatment on their own, without knowing the reason for their appearance, you must be sure to call the doctor for diagnosis. Appendicitis in children over the age of 7 years can be diagnosed by the following symptoms:
- increased pain in the right iliac region with a loud cough;
- increased pain in the right iliac region during the child's turning his back on the left side;
- reduction in pain when lying on his right side, pulling the leg to the body, and increased pain when straightening the legs and turning on your left side.
to recognize appendicitis in children is necessary to conduct physical, laboratory, and in case of need - instrumental examination .
On palpation of the abdomen of the child felt muscle tension and noted the appearance of a sharp pain iliac region, revealed the positive symptoms of irritation of the peritoneum.
diagnosis of appendicitis in young children is held during physiological or drug-induced sleep.
If there are difficulties in the diagnosis of appendicitis in children, provided holding a rectal digital examination, during which revealed overhang and soreness front wall of the rectum is determined by the presence of infiltration, making possible the exclusion of other pathology.
the presence of appendicitis in children in the general analysis of blood revealed leukocytosis 11-15h109 / l and left shift of leukocyte formula.The study of urinalysis may identify reactive leukocyturia, hematuria, albuminuria.
After abdominal ultrasound in children, reveals the existence of an extended (more than 6 cm in diameter) of the appendix, free fluid in the right iliac fossa.In the case of perforation of the appendix is determined periappendikulyarnaya abscess.To diagnose appendicitis in young children, in order to identify protective muscle tension, provided the use of electromyography of anterior abdominal wall.