Rabies is one of the most dangerous infectious diseases, have a viral nature, over which is characterized by severe damage to the nervous system, is usually fatal.But emergency vaccination after the onset of infection, even before the first symptoms, the disease is prevented.Signs of rabies in humans, stage, treatment and prevention
types of rabies
Provided 2 types of rabies:
- natural, formation of foci which occurs wild animals (wolves, foxes, raccoon dogs, jackals, Arctic fox, skunk, mongoose, bats);
- urban centers of which are formed by dogs, cats, farm animals.It stipulates that most of the cases of death of people is due to the bite of an infected dog.
Signs of rabies
The average incubation period for rabies ranges from one to two months.The duration of the incubation period depends on what is the localization of damage (the distance from the brain) and the number of viral particles that have fallen into the wound.As the nerve fibers of the injury rabies virus must get into the brain, whe
stages of rabies
allocate 3 stages of rabies:
- prodromal period, whose duration is 1-4 days.Symptoms of this stage is to rabies fever, headache, occurrence of fatigue, loss of appetite.In addition, marked neuralgia along the nerves that are located closest to the site of the bite, allocated increased sensitivity of the skin at the site of the bite, the occurrence of small muscle twitching;
- step excitation, the duration of which is from 4 to 7 days.Its manifestation is the occurrence of recurrent episodes of psychomotor agitation, which are expressed in dramatically increased sensitivity to even minor sensory irritation: bright light, different sounds, noises.The patient becomes aggressive, violent, there are hallucinations, anxiety, delusions, paresis, convulsions and paralysis of the muscles.As a rule, the stage of excitation is accompanied by a fever of 40 degrees.As the disease frequency of attacks increases, the intervals between them become shorter;
- stage of paralysis, when signs of the disease to other joining symptoms of cranial nerves: facial nerve paresis, diplopia, paresis of facial muscles.The eye muscles become paralyzed, there is a violation of the swallowing function.Drooling with swallowing disorders leads to the fact that there is foam in the mouth, which is so characteristic of patients with rabies.Into ½ cases, there is the presence of rabies.When a man tries to drink, he involuntarily sharply reduced the diaphragm and other respiratory muscles.
Illness generally lasts 58 days, at least - 10-12 days.Usually, death occurs from the fact that breathing stops because of damage to the respiratory system.
diagnosis of rabies in rabies diagnosis is based on the study of the history of the disease (the presence of an animal bite or hit his saliva on broken skin), identification of the specific symptoms of rabies and performance of laboratory diagnostic methods.The diagnosis can be confirmed if the rabies virus antigens detected in biopsies of skin or prints to the cornea, as well as detect antibodies to the virus in the blood serum.Treatment for rabies
Typically, rabies treatment is carried out in intensive care units.Treatment should be symptomatic.It is recommended that an active maintenance therapy (acceptance of hypnotics, anticonvulsants, analgesics, parenteral nutrition, organization, etc.).
If you are bitten by a strange dog, you should immediately wash the wound, using soapy water, and then must be treated the wound with hydrogen peroxide and immediately contact the emergency room.Note that vaccination is effective only if its execution performed within 14 days from the time of the bite or contact with the saliva of the animal to the damaged skin.
If possible should observe the animal to bite you within 10 days.If the animal is not killed within 10 days after the bite you, and it did not appear the main signs of rabies, the vaccination may be discontinued.
Depending on what the location, depth and other parameters of the wound, the doctor decides on how to prevent rabies.In the most simple situations in prevention includes passive immunization with rabies immunoglobulin or anti-rabies serum, followed by vaccination.
Serum Immunoglobulin and entered once.Vaccines which are currently in use, usually must be administered 6 times: injection should be performed on the same day to the doctor, then at 3, 7, 14, 30 and 90 days thereafter.Vaccination against rabies is not contraindicated for pregnant women.
To ensure adequate immunity and prevention of post-vaccination complications, grafting should not drink any alcoholic beverages during the course of vaccination and 6 months after they are finished.During the period of vaccination requires that the patient is not overtired, avoiding overheating and overcooling.These restrictions are to avoid factors that can be reduced generation efficiency immunity.