Under sleeping sickness is understood as an infection common in the African continent.Experts identify Rhodesian and Gambian African sleeping sickness.The agents of sleeping sickness parasites are flat, which differ oblong-fusiform.Their dimensions are very small, but they are mobile, easy to move through a semi-transparent membrane that runs along the body.Consider the causes, symptoms and treatment of sleeping sickness.
reasons for sleeping sickness
The reasons for the emergence of sleeping sickness is a bite of the tsetse fly of the genus Glossina.
symptoms of sleeping sickness
About a week after the bite of inflammatory lesions in the skin, heal, usually on their own.Tsetse parasites are inoculated into the subcutaneous space, what happens during the blood-sucking.Once in the bloodstream gets a certain amount of trypanosomes, but the bite is most of them, where infectious agents are actively proliferate and form a characteristic painful knot - chancroid.After that there is the spread of parasites in the body that is carried out through the lymphatic vessels and interstitial space.For sleeping sickness is characterized by constant mutation.The destruction of trypanosomes first wave occurs under the action of antibodies, but in this struggle made invisible generation new antigenic forms of the infection.A strain of sleeping sickness generated hundreds of new variants of the parasite.
Progress of Rhodesian sleeping sickness is more serious and acute than the Gambia, but the symptoms of sleeping sickness in both forms do not differ:
- input chancre appears - a painful knot in the place of inoculation trypanosomes.His appearance takes 5-7 days after getting the pathogen of sleeping sickness in the body.In some cases, it may be an expression of, but in the end it almost always heal spontaneously;
- appears insomnia;
- appears remitting fever;
- there are headaches, pain has a strong effect;
- have difficulty concentrating;
- appears developing tachycardia;
- body temperature rises;
- in the posterior cervical triangle of nodes increases;
- appear painful subcutaneous edema;
- appears annular erythema of the Europeans.
When identifying a person African sleeping sickness Gambian type marked change of exacerbations of the disease latent period of calm.Infection may thus for a long time remain undetected until the time of onset of central nervous system.Identify Rhodesian sleeping sickness , which is characterized by more severe symptoms occur faster.Patients in this form of exhaustion occurs almost immediately, but the less visible are the lymph nodes.
As developing infection, the symptoms intensified.Patients begin to appear absent expression, lowered eyelids, lower lip droops.Patients seemed to fall into a stupor.They rarely go to the contact with the people around them, do not ask and do not refuse to eat.For the latter stages of the disease is characterized by the occurrence of seizures, transient paralysis, coma, epilepsy and inevitable death.
Warning sleeping sickness
To prevent sleeping sickness is necessary to observe the simple, but effective at the same time, these rules:
- refusal to visit the centers of the disease in the absence of urgency;
- wearing light clothes, shirts with long sleeves;
- use insect repellents when going outside;
- introduction of 1 every 6 months by intramuscular injections of pentamidine.
treatment of sleeping sickness
for treatment of sleeping sickness provided use:
- organic compounds, arsenic and pentamidine;
- eflornithine, is particularly effective when the Gambian form.
Assigning specific methods of treatment of sleeping sickness depends on what degree of damage to the central nervous system as the pathogen is resistant to the drug, as well as the general state of the patient.Since all of these funds are highly toxic, their use should be carried out only in the clinics, and the need constant supervision of specialists.
dosages prescribed depending on the patient's age and weight.