August
12
22:25
Infectious diseases

Yellow fever - an acute viral disease

Yellow fever - an acute viral disease, which, fortunately, does not occur very often, and not everywhere, but those who travel a lot, the illness could threaten seriously.How to recognize the yellow fever?How to protect yourself from it?

Countries where you can catch

disease recorded in tropical and subtropical countries where it is possible to develop vectors.List of all the countries endemic for yellow fever, can be viewed on the website of the Center for Disease Control and Prevention United States.

In South America is Venezuela, Bolivia, Brazil, Guyana, Colombia, Panama, Ecuador and Suriname.In Africa - Angola, Burundi, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Zambia, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia, Sudan, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Uganda, Chad, Equatorial Guinea and Ethiopia.Driving in these countries, it is advisable to carry the international certificate of vaccination against yellow fever.

Symptoms of yellow fever

Yellow fever - an infectious disease characterized by hemorrhagic symptoms, intoxica

tion, renal and liver.The virus is carried by mosquitoes Aёdes aegypti.Once in the body it is in the lymphatic vessels, from penetrating into the regional lymph nodes and multiplies it - this is called the incubation period.

Then the virus gets into the liver, kidney, spleen, brain and bone marrow, where the disease begins to progress: there is necrotic and degenerative changes of hepatocytes, increases the permeability of capillaries and venules, and may develop encephalitis.

How is the disease

incubation period usually lasts about three to six days, sometimes up to ten.Basically, the disease occurs in two stages: hyperemia and venous stasis, which are separated by a brief remission.

disease starts very aggressively: strong chills, headaches, pain in the limbs, back and waist.On the first day the temperature rises to 40 degrees.Also, there is swelling and redness of the face, redness of the neck and upper torso.Quickens the pulse to 130 beats per minute.Patients suffering from thirst, nausea and frequent vomiting.At 3-4 day illness flows into a severe defeat of the internal organs: there is jaundice, cyanosis, bleeding gums and nosebleeds.The spleen and liver are increased in size.

4-5 day illness goes into remission stage a brief (up to one day).The condition of patients is greatly improved: the temperature is reduced and pain.The virus rapidly progresses to the stage of venous stasis.Patients with fever again, there are hemorrhages in the mucous membranes and skin, increases jaundice, bloody vomiting begins.During this period, there is also a drop in blood pressure, bradycardia, anuria and collapse.It is also possible the development of toxic encephalitis.Patients growing weakness, delirium may occur.

Diagnosis and treatment of yellow fever

diagnosis is based on data from epidemiological anamnesis (stay in countries endemic for yellow fever), clinical presentation, laboratory tests.Cylinders found in the urine and protein.In the blood of patients with marked decrease in the level of neutrophils, white blood cells, bilirubin increased residual nitrogen, as well as increased activity of serum transaminases.Also used in the diagnosis of liver histological examination of biopsy samples and serological methods.

special preparations against yellow fever does not exist.The treatment is to remove the symptoms of obstruction and further development of the disease.Patients are hospitalized, they prescribe bed rest, sparing diet high in calories.When severe illness infused protein and water-electrolyte solutions, appointed by plasmapheresis, steroids.It is also successfully used drugs interferon.In the worst outcome the patient dies on 6-9 day (mortality - from 5 to 25%).With a favorable outcome of the recovery is very fast, fatigue persists for 5-7 days.Clearers people get lifelong immunity against the virus.

Vaccination against yellow fever

vaccine contains attenuated yellow fever virus strain 17D and is considered the safest and most effective in the history of vaccinology.Immunity against the virus develops in 95% of vaccinees, while it persists for 30-35 years.Vaccination is contraindicated in pregnant women, children under 9-12 years old, HIV-infected, suffering from diseases of the thymus gland, as well as people who are allergic to egg white.

Complications Complications of yellow fever include myocarditis, gangrene of limbs and soft tissue, pneumonia.It can also occur secondary bacterial flora, causing sepsis may develop.

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