Vaccination is immunobiological active drug in the body that causes certain changes for the formation of graft immunity to this type of infection.Also desirable changes may occur and undesirable, in other words - adverse reactions to the vaccine, and complications from vaccination.
Possible reactions to the vaccination
reactions after vaccination may be local and general.Under local reactions understood the appearance of pain, redness, and induration at the injection site.Common adverse reactions after vaccination affected the whole body, can increase the temperature felt malaise, etc.
In general, adverse reactions to the vaccine are a normal reaction of the organism as a response to the foreign antigen.In most cases, they reflected the process of developing immunity.For example, the temperature increases due to release in the blood of "mediators" immune response.If they are not severe, they are a good sign in terms of developing immunity.Generally, adverse reactions to vaccines, which are used for inactivated vaccines (DTP, DT, Hepatitis B), appear 1-2 days after vaccination, and if they are not treated, they are on their own in 1-2 days.If the vaccine is made with live vaccines, the reaction may appear on 2-10 day and likewise pass for 1-2 days.
Local adverse reactions include seal, redness, edema, which are substantial.In addition, as the local reaction may be a rash, which is an allergic rash, resembling those in the sting.Also, local reaction to the vaccine may appear enlarged lymph nodes, nearby from the injection site.
Occurrence associated with the occurrence of inflammation at the ingestion of foreign substances.Inflammation is the greater, the more the body has got foreign substances.The number of local reactions also affect the mode of administration of vaccines.
Common adverse reactions include rash on the body, which covered large areas of the body, breach of appetite and sleep, fever, headache, anxiety, dizziness.In addition, it may be briefly lost consciousness, there may be cyanosis and cold extremities.The rash may appear after vaccination because of the multiplication of the vaccine virus in the skin, allergic reactions, increased bleeding.
Possible complications after vaccination
complications after vaccination are unwelcome and sufficiently serious condition.For example, complications can act as a sharp drop in blood pressure.Other examples of complications after vaccination include the appearance of seizures, neurological disorders, allergic reactions of varying severity, and others.
The main reasons for the appearance of complications include:
- violation of conditions of storage of the vaccine;
- violation of the vaccine technology;
- violation of instructions for administration of the vaccine;
- the presence of the individual characteristics of the organism;
- the accession of infection - purulent inflammation at the injection site, and infection if the vaccination was carried out during its incubation period.
As local complications after vaccination advocates the emergence of seals;purulent (in violation of the rules of vaccination) and "sterile" (incorrect BCG), inflammation at the injection site.
as common complications after vaccination appear:
- the emergence of excessively strong general reactions involving high temperatures (over 40 ° C), intoxication;
- appearance with CNS complications: persistent piercing crying baby, seizures without fever or rise;encephalopathy (neurologic "signs");postvaccinal serous meningitis (short, do not leave the consequences of "irritation" of the meninges, which may be caused by the vaccine virus);
- occurrence of generalized vaccinia infection by a microorganism;
- the appearance of complications with damage to various organs;
- the appearance of complications, wearing allergic character: Local allergic-type reactions (angioedema), allergic rashes, breathlessness, increased bleeding time, toxic-allergic condition;fainting, anaphylactic shock.