The state hepatic encephalopathy include spectrum of neuropsychiatric disorders that develop in the case of liver failure, and liver cirrhosis.Consider what may have symptoms and treatment of hepatic encephalopathy.
symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy
If hepatic encephalopathy was provoked acute liver failure, then it is characterized by a high mortality rate.If you do not perform the liver transplant, it kills more than half of patients.But the prognosis is favorable recovered in the future signs of chronic disease and hepatic encephalopathy are absent.In the case of cirrhosis of the liver hepatic encephalopathy refers to the most adverse and serious complications.If clinical signs of hepatic encephalopathy are missing, some patients with cirrhosis of the liver during the additional psychometric studies revealed the presence of neuropsychiatric disorders.This condition is referred to as latent (hidden) hepatic encephalopathy.It is important to recognize and treat latent hepatic encephalopathy, as it
Because of hepatic encephalopathy develops an imbalance in the level of amino acids and increases the blood levels of the neurotoxin (toxic substances, mainly affecting the nerve cells).This triggered the development of edema and functional disorders astroglial: marked increase in the permeability barrier between the total blood flow and cerebral blood flow, changes in the processes of transmission of nerve impulses and the energy supply of nerve cells that are clinically related to symptoms of encephalopathy.
Neuropsychiatric symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy may occur from mild to profound coma stages.The symptoms of hepatic encephalopathy covered change intelligence, consciousness, behavior and the occurrence of muscle disorders.
stages of hepatic encephalopathy
to determine the stage of hepatic encephalopathy, reveals a state of mind.For the first stage is characterized by rhythm disturbance of sleep: daytime somnolence, and at night - and insomnia.In the second stage marked increase in drowsiness and a transition into lethargy.The third stage is added to the disorientation in time and space, as well as confusion.In some cases the development of epileptic seizures, spastic paraplegia.Fourth step - a coma whereby consciousness and response to painful stimuli are absent.
treatment of hepatic encephalopathy
Today in the complex treatment of hepatic encephalopathy include holding 3 major groups of activities.The first group includes diet.Dietary measures are intended to limit the food intake of protein, thereby reducing the formation of ammonia in the colon.In addition, it is necessary to provide a sufficient amount of calories intake to reduce the decay processes.
The second group of measures aimed at the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, is the appointment of drug therapy.The most commonly used drug is lactulose, whose main mechanism of action is to reduce the concentration of ammonia in the blood due to the fact that its flow is reduced from the gut.To reduce the formation of toxins, antibiotics are also used.Furthermore, in the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy, amino acid preparations may be used having a branched side chain, via which the amino acid composition of normal blood.Perhaps the use of zinc as a supplement to the basic therapy.
If severe hepatic encephalopathy, progressive, and for patients with hepatic insufficiency, the only effective treatment for the disease is to perform a liver transplant.