Injuries ankle and Achilles tendon are frequent injuries of the musculoskeletal system.Often, because of them there is long-term disability, and disability.Ankle - is a complex anatomical education, which consists of the bone framework of ligamentous apparatus with the surrounding nerves, blood vessels and tendons of three muscle groups.Bone base ankle composed distal ends of the tibial and fibular bones, which include a block of the talus in the form of a fork.
most often damaged ankle fractures accompany his bony elements violation of the integrity of ligaments, dislocation and subluxation of the foot.The emergence of possible damage to the ankle by indirect or direct traumatic force.From indirect traumatic force may abduction, eversion (pronation) or adduktsionno-inversion (supinatsionnoe) damage.The first kind of damage can occur when a traumatic force to stop the plug ankle turned outward, and assigned proniruetsya.In the case of the opposite direction of the traumatic forces are
Damage ankle may be fresh or inveterate.Recent injuries are open and closed.Damage to the ankle are fresh, if the period of injury ranges from 10 to 20 days.Accordingly, the injury is considered to be long-standing, if after receiving damage has been more than 20 days.Among the chronic damage, a group damage which is accompanied by severe post-traumatic arthrosis of the ankle joint.
Diagnostics ankle injury
Servicing ankle injury is carried out based on the nature of the mechanism of injury, X-ray examination, performed in two projections and clinical picture.Sometimes, in order to clarify the damage ligamentous apparatus of the ankle, held a special X-ray examination, when the foot is attached to the position, which is necessary for the survey straining ligaments that can be clearly identified on radiographs.Sometimes, to diagnose disease, make arthrography, by which is possible to determine damage to the capsule and ligaments of the ankle joint.
Injuries Achilles tendon
Achilles tendon is the strongest and thickest tendon in the human body.The emergence of tendon damage is possible when the load is attributable to the tendon does not match his strength, and in the event of a sharp contraction of the muscles or because of direct strong impact attributable to the tendon.
identifies a number of biomechanical factors that contribute to ensuring that could be damaged tendon:
- presence of high arch of the foot;
- presence of O-shaped curvature of the legs;
- occurrence of deformation of the calcaneus;
- presence of insufficient stretching of the calf muscles and hamstrings;
- availability habits tread on the rear side of the heel;
- excessive inward rotation of the foot;
- occurrence of rigidity (stiffness) of the calcaneal tendon.
Achilles tendon can be torn or stretched.Typically, the Achilles tendon injury is the result of numerous minor injuries.The inflammatory process that begins due to small, minor injuries, minor discomfort may accompany.Then the pain is characterized by the possession of an episodic character, and possibly its appearance in the case of increased physical activity.Against the backdrop of a chronic inflammatory process is marked decrease in the strength of the fibers, reducing their elasticity, and in areas mikronadryvov possible scarring.Due to strong physical exertion due to a sharp movement may be a full separation of the tendon.
most common injury of the Achilles tendon rupture occurs as in the case of a sharp sudden load, for example, the sprinters during the launch or during the jump, as well as the sudden flexion of the foot.Upon impact, may cause partial damage.First, in the area of the injury appears a sharp pain, swelling, it becomes difficult or impossible active plantar flexion.
Diagnostics Achilles tendon injury
At rupture of the Achilles tendon with the help of X-rays can not get any results, because the tendon tissue x-rays do not linger.But in some cases, X-rays capable of indirectly point to the injury of the tendon, for example, when taped fractured shin bone.For the diagnosis of Achilles tendon injury in the form of a gap provided the use of ultrasound and / or magnetic resonance imaging.With the help of MRI diagnostics is also possible stretching of the Achilles tendon.