Osteomyelitis of the maxilla is a necrotic infectious process, which is localized in the jaw bone, as well as in the tissues surrounding it.The disease occurs on the background of low immunity, disorders of neurohumoral regulation and microcirculation, as well as high sensitization to various infections.
There are odontogenic, traumatic and hematogenous osteomyelitis of the maxilla.
When odontogenic osteomyelitis of the source of disease process - bad tooth.Traumatic and hematogenous osteomyelitis of the jaw develops from an infection that has fallen into the bone through the bloodstream from any other patient's body.
cause of osteomyelitis of the maxilla
pathological process in 85 percent of cases affects the lower jaw, and only 15 percent is localized at the top.Clinically osteomyelitis of the maxilla proceeds more favorably than the bottom.This is evidenced by the provision of pre-hospital care - osteomyelitis of the maxilla accounts for only one-third of cases, and osteomyelitis of the mandible
The jaw bone infection, usually penetrates the aching tooth, through the blood in diphtheria, scarlet fever and chronic tonsillitis, and trauma (fractures, wounds, sometimes dysfunction of the temporomandibular joint).
Symptoms of osteomyelitis jaw
on clinical leakage are three types of osteomyelitis of the maxilla: acute, subacute and chronic.
for acute osteomyelitis of the maxilla is characterized by pronounced symptoms, which caused strong reaction to getting infections.The patient initially noted pain in the affected area of the tooth, and then the pain increases as necrotic process flows on the adjacent teeth.
Severe pain gives to the temporal region, eyeball, ear.Because of the growing collateral edema of the optic fissure narrowing progresses, until its complete closure, nasal breathing is impossible or very difficult.
arise in podglaziya, sky inflammatory infiltrates quickly turn into abscesses and cellulitis.In the case of retrobulbar phlegmon may cause exophthalmos.
Subacute osteomyelitis occurs after acute osteomyelitis of the maxilla.During this period, the pus from the bone breaks through the fistula to the outside, as a rule, in the oral cavity.However, inflammation and bone destruction, continues, with several improves the general condition of the patient.
Chronic osteomyelitis of the upper jaw has a rather prolonged inflammatory process that can take several months.During chronic osteomyelitis formed sequesters (fragments torn away dead tissue), the formation of new fistulas.
complications osteomyelitis of the maxilla
In the absence of timely and adequate treatment for osteomyelitis of the upper jaw may develop serious complications such as an abscess (localized purulent inflammation), abscess (Distributed purulent inflammation that affected soft tissues), sepsis (penetration into the bloodinfection, which is why developing a life-threatening condition).
Data complications can add phlebitis lining of the brain and blood vessels of the face.In addition, acute osteomyelitis of the upper jaw may develop inflammation of the sinuses, the main feature of which is purulent nasal discharge.
diagnosis of osteomyelitis of the maxilla
The disease is diagnosed on the basis of local and general examination of the patient's complaints, radiological examination of the jaw and blood.
Treatment of osteomyelitis of the maxilla
the treatment of osteomyelitis of the maxilla, first of all, remove the affected tooth and prescribed a course of antibiotics.In case of need for surgery, is dissected periosteum for outflow of fluid and inflammatory pus from diseased tissues, as well as for the possibility of washing the bone cavity effective antimicrobial agents.
addition, surgically removing the mature conducted sequestration is assigned to the local and detoxification therapy.During the treatment of osteomyelitis of the upper jaw to the patient may need help ENT specialist.