Under funnel chest understood the occurrence of malformation manifested vary in shape and depth of the sternum and the retraction of the anterior ribs.This kind of malformation is the most common among congenital deformities of the chest.Funnel chest was first investigated in 1600.Today is not fully identified the cause of the funnel chest.
Causes of funnel chest
Literature provides more than 30 different explanations of the origin of the funnel chest deformity, but to date it is believed that the leading cause of funnel chest is the presence of genetic factors.In support of this it was found that similar changes are inherent with relatives.In addition, in patients with funnel chest there are other malformations.
The causes of funnel chest is the occurrence of dysplastic changes in cartilage and connective tissue structures of the skeleton of the chest, the development of which is due to the presence of enzymatic disorders that entail distortion in the formation of acid mucopolysaccharides and the o
Classification funnel chest
funnel chest shape deformation is classified as normal, and ploskovoronochnuyu.By type of deformation is released symmetric and asymmetric funnel chest.Depending on the variety of curvature of the sternum emit a typical, screw and saddle funnel chest.By the degree of deformation of the pathology can be I, II or III level.At the stage of the disease strain can treat compensated, subcompensated, decompensated.In combination with other concomitant pathologies stands and do not combine funnel chest.
Diagnostics funnel chest
Appearance pathology in the form of funnel chest depends on what the age of the patient.If abnormality is detected in infants, that it is characterized by the presence of low-profile and depressions "paradox of inspiration," when you breathe the sternum and the ribs sink, especially when crying and screaming.Most of the younger children there is an increase retraction, protrusion of the edges of the rib arcs forward and formation beneath the transverse grooves - "psevdoborozdy Harrison."For these children, there is the presence of propensity to colds, but the physical and psychomotor development is normal.
School-age children in the presence of funnel chest have a chest, which indicated the presence of a gradual transition to a fixed curvature of the sternum and the ribs, the change in posture.There acquire typical funnel sternum species: the omission of the shoulder girdle, the protrusion of the abdomen, flattening the chest, raised edges costal arches.In addition, there is a strengthening of the thoracic kyphosis, the occurrence of lateral curvature of the spine.With a deep breath is noticeable symptom of "the paradox of inspiration."Children have pale skin, weight loss, rapid fatigue observed when running and walking, the growth of dyspnea, palpitations during physical exertion, the prevalence of poor appetite, irritability, sweating.At this age, it marked the emergence of disorders of external respiration and cardiac activity.Sometimes you may experience vague pain localized in the heart, the propensity to bronchitis, recurrent pneumonia.
Usually, diagnosis funnel chest does not cause difficulties during the examination of the patient, in this connection during the investigation of patients should not only be detected deformation, but also assessed the overall condition of the patient, the function of the respiratory and circulatory.The extent and nature of the deformation is determined by various indexes torakometrii and thorax, which takes into account the depth of the deformation at the xiphoid process, the width of the rib cage and chest circumference at the same level, the volume of the funnel-shaped depressions and the elasticity of the chest.
In a comprehensive survey of patients with a funnel-shaped deformation necessarily include conducting general clinical research, in which the evaluation is carried out of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems.