Over the past two decades, a significant upward trend showing a pathological condition is pulmonary embolism, which is, in essence, is not a separate disease, but is a complication of other pathologies associated with the formation of blood clots.Under pulmonary embolism refers to thrombus occlusion of the main trunk of the vessel or any branch of the pulmonary artery.
It is now believed that pulmonary embolism - a complication of postpartum and post-operative conditions, as well as some somatic diseases.Mortality from this terrible complication ranks third after cancer and cardiovascular pathologies.
Causes of pulmonary embolism
common cause of all types and variants of pulmonary thromboembolism is the formation of blood clots in the vessels of different size and localization.Subsequently the detached thrombi and entering the lung artery, clog them, causing the blood flow to cease further portions.
most common disease that leads to pulmonary embolism - deep vein thrombosis of the lower limbs.With
- genetic disease (lack of proteins S and C, antithrombin III);
- red systemic lupus erythematosus;
- hormonal contraceptives;
- traumatic injuries;
- childbirth complications;
- varicose veins;
- a heart attack;
- heart failure;
- low physical activity;
- age older than 50 years.
Clinical symptoms of pulmonary embolism
There are four options for pulmonary embolism: pulmonary, brain (tsererebralny), cardiovascular and abdominal.
For pulmonary form of pulmonary embolism observed acute respiratory failure.There dyspnea at rest, dyspnea, skin gets ashy bluish color, even at a distance can be heard wheezing.On the second day marked the development of a heart attack - pneumonia lung.The patient complains of fever, hemoptysis, cough, chest pain, shortness of breath.The high temperature because of inflammation in the lungs can hold up to ten days.
for brain (cerebral) variant of pulmonary embolism and characterized by focal cerebral disorders (tinnitus, dizziness, fainting, convulsions, vomiting, weakness, loss of consciousness).Often bleeding occurs within the brain, which leads to coma and brain edema.
cardiovascular version of pulmonary embolism increases heart rate to one hundred and fifty beats per minute, blood pressure plummets, there is an acute heart failure, which is manifested by swelling of the neck veins, heart rhythm disturbances, chest pain.
most rare, but at the same time the most insidious version of pulmonary embolism is abdominal option, in which there are heartburn, hiccups, possible constipation, vomiting, liver enlargement takes place, accompanied by pain.This disrupted the digestive tract, disturbed general weakness and abdominal pain.
Complications of pulmonary embolism
very often due to pulmonary embolism, heart failure occurs, and as a consequence, there comes a sudden death.If this pathology is not treated, it runs very fast backup capabilities of the body and develop the dangerous lung disease (respiratory failure, pulmonary infarction), heart (cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial infarction, heart failure), and brain damage.