Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a sudden blockage of a blood clot trunk or branches of the pulmonary artery.In other words, in the lumen of the vessel is formed "plug", because of which the pulmonary artery blood flow suddenly stops and developed processes that often lead to death.Among the causes of death pulmonary embolism is the third largest after ischemic heart disease and strokes.
causes of pulmonary embolism
main causes of PE are:
- blood clotting (thrombophilia);
- vascular disease and deep vein thrombosis, located in the lower leg at an elevated blood clotting;
- diseases of the cardiovascular system (heart rhythm disturbances, cardiomyopathy, atherosclerosis, hypertension, coronary heart disease);
- oncological diseases (cancer, stomach cancer, lung cancer).
Types of pulmonary embolism
Depending on the location of the blood clot in the pulmonary artery are distinguished: thromboembolism of small branches of the pulmonary artery thromboembolism secondary (equity and segment) branches of the pul
If thrombus is closed less than a quarter of the pulmonary artery, shortness of breath, no pain, blood pressure is normal;at the close of 30 - and less than 50 percent of the pulmonary artery arises severe shortness of breath, dizziness, weakness, cough, blood pressure normal or slightly reduced.When 50 percent or more of the closing sharply lower blood pressure, asthma attack occurs, the person loses consciousness, tachycardia occurs, then swelling and pulmonary infarction.
If the clot has closed 75 percent of the pulmonary artery, the asthma attack comes on suddenly, and then comes the loss of consciousness, blood pressure drops, and five minutes later, death occurs.
current forms of pulmonary embolism
are four forms of the disease: fulminant (acute), acute, protracted and chronic.
In the chronic form there is a periodic aggravation of thromboembolism in the small branches of the pulmonary artery.Periodically repeated heart attacks the lungs, which is why in the pulmonary circulation increases blood pressure and heart failure develops.
for a protracted form characterized by blockage of medium and large branches of the pulmonary artery.This state may last for several weeks, the symptoms gradually.There's constant weakness, shortness of breath, occasionally deteriorating health with loss of consciousness, which often ends in death.
acute form occurs with increasing overlap of the main branches of the pulmonary artery.Starting usually sudden, the disease progresses rapidly, gradually develops the same symptoms.This state lasts from three to five days, and often ends with pulmonary infarction.
Lightning or acute form characterized by the sudden onset of an attack, dyspnea at rest, choking, sick feeling anxiety and fear rising, gasping, tossing in bed.The skin of the upper body, neck, face and ears become cyanotic, and within minutes it becomes blue.In the chest there is pain, decreased blood pressure, dizziness appears, the person loses consciousness.A few minutes later, death occurs.
Prevention of pulmonary embolism
To prevent such a dangerous disease, it is necessary as soon as possible to diagnose vascular disease of the legs and early treatment of thrombophlebitis.
People with risk of thrombosis drugs prescribed blood thinners.
When cardiac arrhythmia is an urgent need to see a doctor.The favorable outlook of life is possible only at the early detection of the disease, its treatment and timely delivery of the full scope of required assistance.