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Cancer of the esophagus

Under esophageal cancer refers to malignant disease, which occurs when the tissues in the esophagus develop cancer cells.Mostly esophageal cancer affects the lower and middle esophagus.Typically, cancer of the esophagus characterized by the possession of squamous structure.2nd place in frequency is adenocarcinoma.Cancer of the esophagus begins to manifest itself in the early stages, when the tumor begins to grow, and therefore it is easy to diagnose with timely treatment to the doctor.Consider symptoms, and stage of treatment of esophageal cancer.

Symptoms of esophageal cancer

Symptoms that may indicate the existence of esophageal cancer include:

  • occurrence of dysphagia, which is understood as the occurrence of difficulties in passing through the esophagus roughage;
  • occurrence of pain during eating, feeling that the bolus stopped passing the esophagus;
  • regular occurrence of vomiting, in which there is an admixture of blood;
  • occurrence of coughing after drinking liquids;
  • development hoarseness,
    appearing for no apparent reason.

All of the features listed above, indicate that in the digestive tract, there are violations, and they represent indirect evidence of esophageal cancer.The symptoms characteristic of the disease, can be divided into primary, which occur locally, secondary and general.

Under the primary symptoms of esophageal cancer refers to the occurrence of pain, localized behind the chest, which showed that the tumor has spread beyond the walls of the esophagus, dysphagia, enhanced salivation and regurgitation of food.When patients begin to experience difficulties in the passage of food through the esophagus, they try to avoid eating much solid food, have resorted to eating promolotoy, pureed food.Over time, they are forced to limit their food ration with liquid products, such as bouillons, cream, milk.As a result, weight loss begins progressive rates, which often comes to a complete cachexia.This is followed by the onset of full obstruction of the esophagus when all the power, took sick, thrown back.In case of stagnation of food in the esophagus from the mouth there is a smell.

emergence of secondary symptoms occurs after the tumor has spread beyond the neighboring organs.When the affected organs of the chest, symptoms that depend on the involvement in certain mediastinal tumor: Chest appear dull pain after eating - tachycardia, shortness of breath, changes tone of voice, there are cough, swollen supraclavicular fossa.The emergence of the common symptoms of esophageal cancer is caused by a phenomenon of obstruction.The most striking example is dysphagia, which may develop as a result of proliferation of malignancy and the emergence of reflex spasms occurring in some parts of the esophagus.The general non-specific symptoms of esophageal cancer include the appearance of adynamia, apathy, fatigue, weight loss and causeless subfebrile.

stages of esophageal cancer

In medicine stands stage 4 esophageal cancer.

  • the first step in tumor have clear boundaries and its size in diameter can be up to 3 cm. Tumor development occurs exclusively in the mucosa and submucosa of the esophagus, no metastases.
  • the second step dimensions tumors reached 3 cm to 5 cm, tumor growth occurs in all layers of the esophagus, possibly metastasis to the lymph nodes.
  • for the third stage is characterized by the proliferation of the tumor up to 5 cm or more, its development occurs outside of the esophagus.There are lymph node metastases in large quantities, as well as narrowing of the esophagus.
  • On 4th stage tumor invades adjacent organs.

treatment of esophageal cancer

treatment of esophageal cancer is difficult due to the fact that the disease is usually diagnosed late because of delayed treatment of the patient to the doctor, therefore, the tumor grows into adjacent organs.Modern medicine for the treatment of esophageal cancer using the following methods:

  • surgery;
  • radiation;
  • combined.

Chemotherapy does not provide significant results, so is used very rarely.

Selection of methods of treatment depends on what is the extent of education, as well as its location.If the tumor is located in the lower part of the thoracic and abdominal cavities is used operative surgery.Upon detection of cancer of the esophagus in the middle of the chest cavity is used for the treatment of radiation therapy or surgery.In the case of tumor formation in the upper part of the thoracic region and the neck, it is advantageously treated with radiotherapy.

By performing surgical resection or implied subtotal extirpation of the esophagus, followed by the installation of the graft.To achieve effective results, preferably a combination of radical and radiation methods.In the event that an inoperable tumor, doctors used palliative treatment, including the imposition of gastrostomy and palliative resection of the esophagus.

If the disease is started, the tumor has had time to grow into the tracheobronchial tree, mediastinal organs or have distant metastases, the achievement of the palliative effect is possible by means of a tube having a large diameter, through the place where the esophagus struck by a tumor, allowing the patient the opportunity to swallowing saliva and liquidfood.In some cases, to keep the lumen, provides the use of esophageal or bougienage expander with silicone tubing.For the cauterization of the tumor using lasers to restore the lumen.In case of complete dysphagia is superimposed gastrostomy.

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