Under the fracture of the upperjaw bone is understood as a violation of the integrity of this part, the damage that can be of varying severity.In most cases, the appearance of the fracture of the maxilla contributes to the provision of mechanical impact on the maxillofacial region (as a result of impact, crash, sports, falls, gunshot wounds, etc.).Fracture of the upper jaw - risk of injury as a result of it may develop a concussion, meningitis, osteomyelitis, etc.
Types of fracture of the upper jaw
fracture of the upper jaw can be the following types:
- complete.Under a complete fracture refers to injury, in which the displaced fragments of the jaw.
- incomplete, in which there is no displacement of the fragments of the jaw;
- open when the fracture damaged and violated the integrity of the soft tissues of the face.The injury is accompanied by bleeding and damage to the skin of the face.
- closed, when that does not violate the integrity of the soft tissues.
types of fracture of the upper jaw
fracture of the upper jaw is divided into first, second and third types.At the turn of the first type under the arch of the hard palate damaged body on the line that runs along the base of alveolar.As a rule, such a fracture breaks off the bottom of the maxillary sinus, often caused by trauma fracture of the nasal septum.At the turn of the second type from the base of the skull off part of the upper jaw with the nasal bones.In this case, the fracture line affects the nose, the septum of the nose and the inner wall of the orbit.In some cases, the injury is complicated by a fractured skull.The turning point of the third type implies a complete separation of the upper jaw, with which come off the bones of the nose and cheekbones under the zygomatic arch and the inner wall of the orbit.This type of injury in almost all cases is accompanied by a fracture of the skull base.
Symptoms of a fracture of the upper jaw
The common symptoms of a fracture of the upper jaw are:
- emergence of severe pain in the area of injury, especially when closing the teeth;
- probing areas of trauma entails the emergence of strong pain, and marked the emergence of the mobility of fragments of jaws;
- appearance of hematomas and hemorrhages in the eye sockets;
- violation of breathing, chewing, speech functions;
- cause nausea and general malaise.
Most fractures of the upper jaw is accompanied by a concussion.
Holding X-ray of the upper jaw fractures often causes a number of difficulties, since the X-ray in lateral projection turns out layering of 2 maxillary bones.In this regard, radiography of the upper jaw is usually performed in a single (sagittal) view.Contour violation suborbital edge, skuloalveolyarnogo crest and borders of the maxillary sinuses indicates the presence of a fracture of the upper jaw.
In the case of craniofacial separation of great help in the diagnosis of the facial skeleton radiography is performed in the axial projection.Also, in recent years it has been used successfully tomography and panoramic radiography.
At the turn of the upper jaw first aid aims to create the conditions for the rest of the injured bone.If possible, the lower jaw is moving closer to the upper jaw and fixed in this position with a scarf, belt, bandage through the roof of the skull.It can be used a knife, ruler, plywood imposed on the teeth of the upper jaw in the transverse direction and fixed by any available materials.In the case of respiratory disorders must be the elimination of respiratory failure, which is released from the mouth of foreign bodies that impede breathing.If there is bleeding, it should be stopped.In place of the injury, it is desirable the imposition of a cold compress.When ceasing its language is needed fixing.If possible, you should conduct anesthesia, using available drugs.
treatment of fractures of the upper jaw
Under the treatment of fractures of the upper jaw is meant:
- implementation of areas of trauma treatment;
- providing conditions to respiratory functions normally performed;
- perform overlapping fragments of jaw bones, which provided for the use of local anesthesia;
- perform secure the bone fragments using splinting and special designs;
- holding antimicrobial and strengthening therapy to prevent complications in the area of the fracture.
After a course of treatment to mechanotherapy and therapeutic exercises to restore the function of the temporomandibular joint and masticatory muscles.