The human brain is a unique organ, the center control all the features of the human body.For normal operation of neurons (brain cells) require a lot of energy.The necessary energy supplies the brain circulatory system.
Due to the peculiarities of the structure and the anastomosis of the arteries of the brain, which form a vicious circle, provides a unique cerebral blood flow and metabolic rate.
case of violation of circulation of blood between delivery and the need for it arises brain imbalance.In this case, even small fluctuations in blood pressure can trigger the development of ischemic area of the brain that affected vessels must provide blood.Further chain of biochemical reactions leading to brain cell death.
chronic cerebrovascular disease or encephalopathy is a slowly progressive cerebrovascular insufficiency (insufficient blood circulation of the brain), which leads to a small focal necrosis of tissues of the brain and its dysfunction.
causes of vascular encephalopathy
Discirculatory encephalopathy is caused by lack of blood supply to the brain caused by atherosclerosis of the blood vessels, hypertension, violation of the rheological properties of blood due dismetabolic disorders (diabetes mellitus), intoxication, traumatic brain injury.
symptoms and types of cerebrovascular accidents
When cerebrovascular insufficiency develop metabolic, and then destructive changes of brain cells (neurons).The disease over the years, all exacerbated both quantitatively and qualitatively.
For the initial stage of the disease is characterized by tserebrostenichesky syndrome, manifested by dizziness, headaches, sleep disturbances, absent-mindedness, emotional instability, fatigue, memory loss to current events.
Later, with the progression of the disease, there is a sharp deterioration in memory, there are movement disorders arise cerebral crises, manifested in the short-term transistor attacks until the stroke.
At the second stage of cerebrovascular accidents begin to happen personality changes, progressive deterioration of all kinds of memory.There is anxiety, irritability, depression;there is uncertainty, daytime sleepiness, the noise in my head;reduced attention, intelligence, the amount of perceived information, criticism of his fortune;enhanced dizziness, headache, unsteadiness when walking.A reduction in capacity for work and social adaptation.Neurologist at survey notes physical inactivity, extrapyramidal symptoms and pyramidal insufficiency, oral automatism.
the third stage of the disease may develop dementia (dementia), vestibulo- atactic, pseudobulbar, Parkinson (extrapyramidal deficiency) syndromes and gross focal lesions that lead to disability.
Dementia - a violation of the human psyche, manifested in intellectual-mental disorders, changing his personality and behavior.The patient is reduced so the memory that it does not recognize relatives, poorly or not at all oriented in time and place (coming from the house to the street, may get lost), as well as current events.
vestibular-atactic syndrome manifests itself in impaired balance, dynamics and statics.Patients feel dizziness, instability, unsteadiness when walking and standing, may fall and "throwing" in the party.This stage is characterized hemorrhagic and ischemic strokes.
When pseudobulbar syndrome in patients with impaired swallowing, speech becomes slurred, words and letters are replaced, there is dysphonia, sick laugh or cry involuntarily.The neurologist at survey reveals symptoms of oral automatism, for example, reflex proboscis (mouth of the patient, are drawn into a tube if you touch them hammer).
for parkinsonian syndrome extrapyramidal syndrome or disease characterized by the extinction of emotional facial movements.The patient is increased muscle tone, tremor appears arms and head, there is stiffness, impaired gait.The patient moves slowly bent in small shuffling steps.