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Stage ( extent) of kidney cancer

the classification of kidney cancer are used several methods of distribution, mainly in the structure of the cancerous tumor and the degree of its development and dissemination.The division into the extent and stage provides the most accurate reflection of the course of the disease, prescribe the most effective treatment and to predict its outcome.

How developed malignant cell is determined by comparing it with the conventional image of a healthy kidney cells.Accordingly it is possible to allocate a grade cells.The first degree in this case speaks of a slight difference of malignant cells to normal cells of the body at this level the outlook for patients is quite good, and the tumor grows and develops very slowly.The most common forms of cancer are its second and third degree, when cancer cells are characterized as moderately differentiated.And last the most aggressive form of cancer is the fourth degree, when the cancer cells are undifferentiated, that is quite similar to those of healthy cells of ren

al tissue.

I must say that such a classification has its own name - histopathologic grading, each level has its own symbol.The first, second, third and fourth degree of kidney cancer are denoted by G1, G2, G3 and G4, respectively, and the degree in which it is impossible to establish the degree of differentiation of the cells marked as GX.

However, despite the reduced incidence of graduation, most physicians still prefer to make predictions based on the established stages of the disease, the definition of which takes place on the basis of such research, as CT, MRI, as well as some laboratory tests.

TNM - classification of kidney cancer

most popular and probably the most important classification of all cancer is the classification adopted by the International Union against called TNM.It is based on three indicators, provisionally designated by the letters T, N, and M where:

  • T - characterizes the primary tumor lesions;
  • N - characterizes the state of the regional lymph nodes;
  • M - reports on the absence or presence of distant metastases.

total combination of the index data defines the exact stage at which at the moment is a cancerous tumor of the kidney.Wherein each index has several numerical indicia.

Index T:

Tx - it is impossible to assess the state of the primary tumor;

T0 - no symptoms of the primary tumor;

T1 - tumor size is less than 7 cm, and it does not extend beyond the kidney;

T2 - tumor size of more than 7 cm and it is not beyond the kidney;

T3 - cancer affects the adrenal gland or a large vein, but remains within the Gerota's fascia;

T3a - tumor remains within the Gerota's fascia, affects the adrenal gland and disposed around the fiber;

T3b - tumor affects the renal vein or inferior vena cava below the diaphragm;

T3S - tumor affects the inferior vena cava above the diaphragm;

T4 - Tumor extends beyond Gerota's fascia.

Index N:

Nx - it is impossible to assess the state of the regional lymph nodes;

N0 - regional lymph node metastases were detected;

N1 - struck one lymph node;

N2 - hit more than one regional lymph node.

Index M:

Mx - it is impossible to assess the presence of metastasis;

M0 - no distant metastases;

M1 - distant metastases are present.

Kidney Cancer Stage 1

addition to the international TNM classification is not rare, doctors resort to classification Robson, identifies four stages of kidney cancer.

In the first stage the cancer is only in the kidney and is within the body of the capsule.This is the earliest stage of the disease, in which the size of the tumor itself usually does not exceed 2.5 cm.

Accordingly, the forecast at this stage is the most prosperous, and the cure rate reaches 90% of patients.

Kidney Cancer Stage 2

second stage of kidney cancer are diagnosed when the cancer cells grow and penetrated into the capsule body.Dimensions cancer while already exceed 2.5 cm.

forecast at the second stage of cancer is still quite favorable.

Kidney Cancer Stage 3

With the penetration of cancer cells in the lymph nodes or in lesions of inferior vena cava or renal vein comes the third stage of the disease.Size of the tumor can be any, as can be observed in the adrenal tumor invasion.

Kidney Cancer Stage 4

the fourth stage of kidney cancer observed an active process of tumor metastasis to adjacent tissues and organs such as the intestines and pancreas.It is also not uncommon occurrence of metastases, for example, in the lungs of the patient.Besides the fourth stage is diagnosed in case of defeat more than one lymph node.

On the fourth stage, patients have little or no chance of long-term remission or cure.