Under gastric cancer refers to the occurrence of a malignant neoplasm derived from epithelial cells that form the gastric mucosa.The development of pathological changes possible in any part of the stomach: at the bottom of the stomach, cardiac department, the stomach and pyloric.Are 4-stage cancer of the stomach, and to the extent of increasing the treatment becomes more difficult and less effective.The method of treatment is determined by a doctor, but as a rule, it is complex.
Causes of stomach cancer
not identified the reasons that develop stomach cancer.Highlighted factors that are predisposed to tumor occurrence.As the carcinogenic metabolites protrude nitrites and nitrates, which in the case of long term exposure can cause the formation of gastric epithelial malignant tumors.For the primary source of nitrites and nitrates, through which they enter the human body, made vegetables, in second place are smoked and dried foods.In addition, the sources are nitrates cheese, beer, other alcoholic drink
The causes of stomach cancer include:
- presence of hereditary predisposition;
- particular eating behavior characteristic of a person that iseating salted, smoked, fried, spicy foods, and foods containing preservatives in its composition in large quantities;
- presence of chronic diseases of the stomach (chronic gastritis, ulcers, polyps);
- conducting surgical procedures performed on the stomach;
- presence of colonization of mucosal infection Helicobacter pylori;
- perform regular work with asbestos dust and nickel;
- insufficient amount of vitamin C and vitamin B12 in the body;
- presence of primary and secondary immunodeficiency states;
- presence of some viral infections, such as Epstein-Barr virus;
- alcohol abuse a large fortress.
symptoms of stomach cancer
for early gastric cancer is characterized by virtually asymptomatic.Or it can be masked by other diseases present in the body.
The most common symptoms of stomach cancer include the appearance of fatigue when performing normal operation, unmotivated weakness, loss of appetite, weight loss.
For smaller tumors characterized by:
- change eating behavior;
- decreased appetite;
- loss of the ability to eat familiar food;
- a slight increase in body temperature;
- appearance of anemia and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate.
With the growth of the tumor may cause pain in the upper abdomen.In the case of narrowing of the output of the stomach after eating a feeling of fullness, belching "rotten", nausea, vomiting.The abdominal fluid may begin to accumulate, thereby significantly increasing the stomach.In case of violation of the integrity of the tissue tumors observed the development of gastrointestinal bleeding.
If the treatment of gastric cancer started when it relates to the development of the first stage, then the chances of saving the life of a person.The chance of getting rid of the disease is 80%.But the detection of cancer in the first stage occurs in 1 in 100.
Upon detection of gastric cancer in the second stage, which, according to statistics, occurs in 6% of cases, survival is 56%.Quite often
stomach cancer is detected at the third step (14%).If cancer is found at this stage, the survival rate is greatly reduced, because the period is different progressive.If the patient has gastric cancer detected 3a, the survival rate is 38%, the detection step 3b - 15%.
at diagnosis in the fourth stage of gastric cancer disease is prevalent in 80% of patients.This indicates that the spread of tumors to other organs, resulting in survival is only 5%.
Diagnosis of gastric cancer
for the diagnosis of gastric cancer is most often used fibrogastroduodenoscopy, which is understood as conduct examination of the stomach using a special apparatus.
to the provisional diagnostic methods include:
- fluoroscopy with double contrast stomach;
- performance of computed tomography;
- holding ultrasound of the abdominal cavity;
- perform biochemical analysis of blood.
treatment of gastric cancer
As a rule, provided for the appointment of an integrated treatment of gastric cancer, the effectiveness of which depends on the size of the tumor, presence of metastases, tumor invasion into surrounding tissue.
as the main method of treatment in favor of radical surgery in which the stomach is excised.If the tumor is small size, then the subtotal resection, in which the removal of 4/5 of the stomach exposed.In other cases, the body was removed completely, and the esophagus was ligated to the small intestine.If the tumor has grown into the other bodies, provided the carrying out of an atypical gastric resection, in which other bodies are captured.After resection is assigned to conduct chemotherapy and radiotherapy.Chemotherapy drugs and radiation dose are chosen depending on what part of the histological tumor.
metastasis of gastric cancer
gastric cancer in the formation of metastases characterized by high activity.There is a gap between the individual cells of the body from the base of the tumor, which with the current lymph or blood throughout the body of the patient.Metastasis of cancer of the stomach, usually spread to the lymph nodes of the retroperitoneal fat and liver.
prevention of gastric cancer
as prevention of gastric cancer for people who have precancerous disease, it is important to undergo regular examinations.When there are complaints about the work of digestion is necessary to address to the gastroenterologist.If there were signs of gastric cancer, it shows the growth of a tumor in a few months, and it is dangerous to delay the start of treatment.