Multiple myeloma is a tumor specific cells, B-lymphocytes in the human body responsible for the function of the immune system.The disease rarely manifests itself before the age of forty, most of it occurs in the elderly and, as a rule, men are affected more often than women.Causes of multiple myeloma is unknown.
Common symptoms of myeloma
In most cases, the disease is at an early stage occurs without any obvious symptoms, there is only a slight increase in ESR.In the future, there are bone pain, weakness and weight loss.Weight loss caused by bone lesions, anemia, impaired humoral immunity, changes in the internal organs.
most frequently manifested myeloma bone pain, pathologic fractures, signs of hypercalcemia, normochromic anemia, renal disease, bacterial infections, sometimes amyloidosis hyperviscous syndrome, hemorrhagic manifestations.
With increased blood viscosity neurological symptoms appear: various kinds of retinal lesions, fatigue, blurred vision, headache, in some cases, numbness and tin
pain in the bones, which are localized in spine, ribs, pelvis, hips, shoulders, tend to appear in motion.Often the pain is localized for a constant indication of a pathological fracture.In myeloma tumor clone proliferation occurs, which leads to bone loss.Eventually, the changes in the bones causing various deviations, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and eventually lead to coma.Also, there is compression of the spinal cord, because of which there is subsidence of the vertebrae.Pockets of tissue destruction are clearly visible on radiographs.
hypercalcemia hypercalcemia is associated with increased bone rezobratsiey and products osteoklastaktiviruyuschego factor myeloma cells.
is important is not the level of total calcium and ionized: the binding of calcium paraprotein may cause long-term asymptomatic hypercalcemia even at normal levels of ionized calcium.Hypercalcemia manifested constipation, polyuria, nausea, vomiting, cerebral disorders, lethargy, degradation and, ultimately, coma.
myeloma nephropathy - a unique form of nephrotic syndrome.The main factors of its development - hypercalcemia, proteinuria, hyperuricemia, amyloidosis, an infection.Expressed in multiple myeloma nephropathy resistant with a gradual increase in proteinuria of renal failure.For "myeloma kidney" myeloma nephropathy symptoms are not specific.
In multiple myeloma anemia occurs predominantly normochromic, which appears as a result of violations of cytokine regulation of hematopoiesis and bone marrow involvement.Thus there is a displacement of myeloma cells germs of normal hematopoiesis.
Another essential component of anemia in multiple myeloma - is insufficient production of erythropoietin, which is observed in more than half of the patients, such as kidney failure.
When multiple myeloma in the general analysis of blood the most characteristic feature is the sharp increase in erythrocyte sedimentation rate, usually up to 60-80 mm / hr.This high level of ESR demonstrates pronounced paraproteinemia.
for multiple myeloma is also characterized by frequent bacterial infections, testifying immunodeficiency.Most often infected urinary system, which is associated with multiple renal disease.There may also be other infections, e.g., pneumococcal pneumonia which cause advantageously encapsulated forms of bacteria.
Among the immediate causes of death for people with myeloma, infectious complications occupy a leading place.