mitral stenosis or mitral valve stenosis - a narrowing of the opening of the mitral valve, located between the left ventricle and left atrium.When narrowing of the opening promotion of blood from the atrium into the ventricle is difficult.
main cause of mitral stenosis - is a childhood rheumatic fever, which is a streptococcal infection that attacks the cardiac tissue and joints.Rheumatism cause scarring on the inner shell of the heart, because of which the cut mitral valve.
Mitral stenosis is treated at any age, but if left untreated, it can lead to very serious complications.
symptoms of mitral stenosis
If the degree of mitral stenosis is small, no obvious manifestations of it is not.Man for a long time may not be aware of the disease.However, ill health can occur suddenly.
main symptoms of mitral stenosis are:
- coughing with hemoptysis;
- frequent respiratory infections, such as bronchitis;
- swelling of the legs;
- shortness of breath;
Rarely observed chest pain and d
In mitral stenosis symptoms similar to other heart defects, its manifestations in palpitations may occur or worsen at any time.
have mitral valve stenosis may be other symptoms, which can only identify an expert: thrombosis, pulmonary hypertension, arrhythmia, pulmonary congestion, heart murmurs.
diagnosis of mitral stenosis
If you suspect mitral stenosis, primarily carried out a physical examination and auscultation.During the physical examination, the doctor listens with the help of phonendoscope heart murmurs.
Auscultation of the lungs helps to detect congestion in the lungs, a complication of mitral valve stenosis.
to detect stenosis of the mitral valve using such diagnostic methods as chest X-ray,
- transesophageal echocardiography,
- Holter monitoring,
- cardiac catheterization.
Together, these research methods can distinguish between mitral valve stenosis of other pathologies - mitral prolapse and mitral insufficiency.
treatment of mitral stenosis
mitral stenosis treated as a conservative method, and operative.The conservative method of mitral stenosis is not a cure, but is able to treat complications arising in this heart defects (heart failure, pulmonary edema, arrhythmia).
Surgery is used only in severe cases.If the narrowing is small and some other manifestations of heart disease is not present, then the patient will be under constant medical supervision.In some cases, surgery may not be necessary.
When medication is used antibiotics, diuretics, anticoagulants and antiarrhythmic drugs.
prescribe antibiotics before tooth extraction, treatment of caries, etc.. To prevent the ingress of bacteria into the blood because the affected valve is more susceptible to infection.Diuretics are drugs that present the body of excess fluid, eliminating congestion in the lungs and swelling in the legs.Anticoagulants prevent blood clots, and antiarrhythmic drugs treat arrhythmia.
Surgical treatment of mitral stenosis
with a strong mitral stenosis require surgery, and can be performed as a minimally invasive intervention, and traditional surgery.In minimally invasive treatment of mitral stenosis are advantages - they are less traumatic and more easily tolerated.
But even after a successful operation there is a risk of arrhythmias, for the prevention of which is prescribed antiarrhythmic drugs.