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Pulmonary stenosis symptoms , stage , treatment

pulmonary stenosis - a disease that is one of the congenital heart defects.In pulmonary stenosis drops from five to ten percent of all congenital heart disease.

Types of stenosis of the pulmonary artery

classification of the disease depends on the location of the stenosis in relation to the pulmonary artery valve.In medicine, there are three types of stenosis of the pulmonary artery: subvalvular, valvular, and supravalvular.Ninety percent of patients diagnosed with valvular stenosis.According to the severity of stenosis of the pulmonary artery is divided into easy, medium and hard.

Causes of pulmonary artery stenosis

According to experts, the cause of the disease is the effect on the fetus sorts of teratogens.For example, this congenital heart disease may develop under the influence of fetal rubella syndrome.Often, pulmonary stenosis is a family disease, which is caused by a genetic predisposition.

Symptoms of stenosis of the pulmonary artery

Mild disease usually occurs without any clinical sym

ptoms and is detected only in old age.Symptoms of the severe stenosis found in early childhood.The child has swelling and throbbing neck veins are marked with chest pain and dizziness, cyanosis and pallor of the skin, frequent fainting, fatigue and shortness of breath during exercise.

diagnosis of stenosis of the pulmonary artery

pulmonary stenosis diagnosed by visual inspection and palpation, in which the right of the sternum can detect systolic and pulse jitter education.

for further diagnosis necessary studies such as angiocardiography, catheterization and cardiac ultrasound, echocardiography and electrocardiography.

Angiocardiography is an X-ray examination of the heart and major blood vessels, in which a water-soluble contrast agent is introduced, which allows to detect narrowing of the outlet orifice of the right ventricle.

At cardiac catheterization via peripheral vessels is introduced into the cavity of the heart tube, which measures the pressure in the right ventricle and the pulmonary artery.When stenosis during insertion of the catheter is a sharp increase in pressure.

With echocardiography revealed right ventricular hypertrophy.

Conduct echocardiography helps to detect an increase in pressure on either side of the location of the obstruction.

Electrocardiography reveals signs of right ventricular hypertrophy, and detects a deviation to the right of the electrical axis of the heart.

chest radiograph allows you to see how much weakened and enlarged pulmonary drawing right heart.

treatment of stenosis of the pulmonary artery

pulmonary stenosis - a very serious disease in which early treatment is necessary.Otherwise it is evolving right ventricular failure and hemodynamic disturbances occur.If pulmonary stenosis progresses, the child's life may be in danger.In this case, an emergency operation.

In adults moderately expressed, insignificant valvular pulmonary stenosis occurs, usually favorable, and any active intervention is required.Supravalvular stenosis develops slowly and muscle subvalvular stenosis progresses quite quickly.

If valve stenosis, the pressure gradient between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle is more than fifty millimeters of mercury, then spend valvuloplasty.

open valvuloplasty is an abdominal operation, which is carried out under general anesthesia with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass.This operation effectively restores geodynamics, but often gives complications in the form of pulmonary valve insufficiency, requiring reoperation.

Closed pulmonary valvuloplasty is performed using the valvotomy, which excised the excess tissue narrows the entrance to the pulmonary artery.

During the balloon valvuloplasty does not require extensive abdominal incisions.During the procedure on the hip made several small punctures.The advantage of this operation is the absence of traumatic cuts, due to which patients tolerate it relatively easy.

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