Respiratory failure is a pathological condition of the human body, which does not provide normal blood gas system of external respiration, or it provides only increased work of breathing, shortness of breath that is manifested.
term "respiratory failure" in a broader sense includes all kinds of violations of gas exchange between the environment and the human body.This type of hypobaric (hypoxia caused by low oxygen pressure in the atmosphere), circulatory type (violation of gas exchange between the cells of the body and lungs due to cardiovascular or heart failure), histotoxic type (blockade at the cellular level of enzymes of tissue respiration).
By leakage respiratory failure is divided into acute and chronic, in violation of gas exchange in some way reflects the stage of the disease - on the latency, partial and global.
As a rule, the severity of acute respiratory failure is estimated to change the gas composition of blood, chronic - based on clinical symptoms.Depending on the occurrence of exerti
Causes respiratory failure
Acute respiratory failure may occur due to various injuries and diseases in which blood flow to the lung or pulmonary ventilation rapid progress or suddenly develop.This, for example:
- blockage of airway foreign bodies, blood clots, vomit
- , allergic laryngeal edema,
- the tongue,
- asthma status in bronchial asthma,
- massive pleural effusion,
- pulmonary edema,
- extensive pneumonia,
- respiratory distress syndrome,
- pulmonary embolism.
It can also be paralysis of respiratory muscles in case of poisoning kurarepodobnymi substances, with the introduction of muscle relaxants, spinal cord injuries, myasthenic crisis, tetanus, botulism, poliomyelitis.In addition, acute respiratory failure causes damage to the respiratory center for poisoning by barbiturates and narcotics, with neuroinfections and traumatic brain injuries.
chronic respiratory failure often cause broncho-pulmonary diseases, such as tuberculosis, pneumoconiosis, swelling of the bronchi and lungs, emphysema, chronic bronchitis and pneumonia, diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, pneumonectomy, pulmonary fibrosis, fibrosing alveolitis when, berylliosis and sarcoidosis.
Sometimes, chronic respiratory failure provoked primary hypertension, pulmonary circulation and pulmonary vasculitis.
Symptoms of respiratory failure
main symptoms of respiratory failure is a diffuse cyanosis and dyspnea.Against the background of the disorder manifest various organs and systems caused by hypoxia.
for acute respiratory failure is characterized by a rapid increase in brain hypoxia before the appearance of psychiatric disorders beginning in most cases with severe respiratory panic.Initially, the patient becomes restless and agitated, and then there is the oppression of consciousness, and sometimes coma.
When respiratory failure phase of mental excitation can not be.This happens when struck by the central nervous system as a result of brainstem stroke, traumatic brain injury, poisoning drugs and barbiturates.In this case, respiratory failure is recognized by the presence of serious neurological disorders, which are caused by the underlying disease.It noted a superficial and rare breathing or respiratory arrhythmia, followed by periods of apnea, cyanosis with the increase, and decrease the appearance of breath.
Chronic respiratory failure usually develops over time.The first and second degree of the disease is manifested only exertional dyspnea.
Pathogenetic diagnosis of respiratory failure is set on the dynamics of clinical manifestations of disease, and especially breathlessness.
the treatment of respiratory failure is used complex methods of correction gas exchange abnormalities, and an alkaline electrolyte balance, and pathogenic causal therapy and the use of symptomatic drugs.